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Review: Chapters 1-4

Properties of Matter and Energy

Chemistry is the study of composition, structure, properties and reactions of matter.

Properties of atoms and molecures –> Determine –> The properties of matter

  • Matter can classified by its composition or physical state.
    • States of matter are separted into:
      • Solids
      • Liquids
      • Gases
Characterstic Solid Liquid Gas
Shape Definite shape Takes shape of container Takes shape of container
Volume Definite volume Definite volume Takes volume of container
Particle Arrangement Fixed, very close Random, close Random, far apart
Particle Interaction Very Strong Moderate Very Weak
Movement of Particles Very slow Moderate Very fast
Examples Ice, Copper and Iron Water, Mercury and Vinegar Water vapour, Nitrogen and Oxygen

Pure Substance: Fixed composition and properties.

  • Compounds: Two or more elements chemically combined.
    • Sodium + Chlorine = Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
  • Elements: the simplest type of pure substance.
    • Nitrogen, Iron or Lead.

Mixtures: contains two or more substances which are physically mixed but not chemically combined.

  • Homogeneous: Composition is uniform throughout the mixture (Solution)
    • Brass
  • Heterogeneous: Composition varies from one part of the mixture to another.
    • Penies in a glass of water.

Physical Properties can be observed or measured without affecting the idenity or composition of a substance.

  • Examples:
    • Odour
    • Taste
    • Colour
    • Appearance

Chemical Properties are only displayed by a substance by changing its composition via a chamical change.

  • Examples:
    • Flammability
    • Acidity
    • Toxicity
    • Corrosiveness

Measurement Basics

For most scientific work, we use the International System of Units (SI units)

Atoms and Elements

Bonding and Nomenclature

Chemical Reactions

Chemical Quantitys

Reaction Stoichiometry